Bus Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a computer bus designed for computer hardware devices. General PCI interface on the computer today, and most have a PC connection Internal appreciated everywhere. PCI-SIG, the organization recognized by the industry to meet the PCI 1.0 PCI specification, released in 1992 to develop the terminal. This is the level of specification components. Has published the following years, the PCI 2.0 specification and the first standard for the connector and slot on the motherboard the latest release version 3.0 of the PCI standard, but still in the development of PCI-SIG.
PCI Express (PCIe) is the latest standard technologies to extend the PC to connect to one another, and will eventually replace the PCI standard. PCIe is used consumer applications installed, such as the motherboard to connect devices such as SATA, USB port and map the economic expansion and others.
PCI Express uses point-to-point connections, while using the previous version of the PCI standard, parallel bus architecture. This makes two-way data transfer, improving the performance of different pairs of communicating devices simultaneously. Remain compatible with legacy PCI solutions for PCI – PCIe is a machine with older hardware based on PCI specification previously used.
PCIe 1.0 and 2.0
PCIe technology continues to grow and improve. In 2004, Intel introduced the PCIe 1.0 specification. A version 1.1 will soon follow, with slight modifications from the specifications.
In 2007, PCI-SIG announced the availability of PCIe 2.0 specification. This doubles the data rate of each channel and remains compatible with PCIe 1.1, the latest generation of cards would still work on a computer with a PCIe 2.0 slot.
Express Card technology is the standard that was introduce in 2003. The Express Card standard offers a thin, modular expansion, quick and easy for PC users. Users can save, cable and wireless communications cards and security devices by adding to the computer by using the card in their system. Suitable for all modules that are design, an Express Card slot to PCIe or Hi-Speed USB using (USB 2.0)
Express Card slot is about average or higher, including the MacBook Pro laptops from Apple that contains the line. Since laptops often have a single slot, replace the PC Card slot with ExpressCard slot, which causes loss of compatibility with PC-Card device.
A PCIe card can enter the slot on the size or larger. The numbers of rows that can be connect to the slot, smaller than the number of slots supported by the waist. This provides a PCIe card not the motherboard hardware to transfer the cost of planning and implementation support utilized to the maximum extent possible.
PCI Express Services
Almost all graphics cards from ATI and NVIDIA make a connection to the motherboard PCIe using the PC. NVIDIA uses PCIe transfers data at high bandwidth with the opportunity for multi-GPU graphics card for the same chipset. Moreover, the model is running, a better performance. ATI also has a multi-GPU system based on PCI.
One of the theoretical applications of external PCIe on a laptop, desktop graphics capabilities, by connecting a laptop on the table external PCIe graphics card However, the development of external graphics solutions to the market slowly, and the case is still very theoretical.
The future standard will offer double the bandwidth of PCIe 2.0, enabling higher data transfer speeds between the motherboard and devices. PCIe 3.0 is in the development of PCI-SIG, and is expected in 2010 Quarter 2 will be released. PCI 3.0 specifications are subject to technical review and a rigorous evaluation before being release to industry. PCIe 3.0 offers compatibility with previous generations of PCI.
PCI-Express standard tests
Standard test systems and test Pie add-in cards. Five trials of PCI compliance:
- Electrical test: research platform and add-in maps the signal quality
- Requirements: Check the configuration space on the card and verification of compliance with specifications
- Test Link Protocol: Verifying the expansion card is handed over to the protocol requirements specification
- Transaction Protocol Test: Test the expansion cards in accordance with the transaction protocol specification requirements links
- Platform BIOS test: BIOS platform to test the ability to recognize and configure the device
Other tests relevant PCIe compatibility tests, the number of PCIe cards and the system is ready to learn or to a compatible device with a PCI Express products.
PCIe 3.0 Set system, add-in card or device on the list of integrators, system or product testing for interoperability and compliance, and vendor re-registration form to send code to the device or system testing. PCI-SIG compliance program still scored big advantage of PCI-SIG membership.
Cooperation with the ease of one-third of control must ensure that the product or system can meet the PCI compliance testing. For more information about PCIe standard tests can found on the PCI-SIG website.